ByteString concatMap性能

我有一个37MB的bin文件,我试图转换为ppm序列.它运行正常,我正在尝试使用它作为练习来学习一些分析,更多关于 Haskell中的延迟字节串.我的程序似乎在concatMap上炸弹,它用于复制每个字节三次,所以我有R,G和B.代码相当直接 – 每2048个字节我写一个新的头:

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import System.IO
import System.Environment
import Control.Monad
import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8 as B


main :: IO ()
main = do [from, to] <- getArgs
          withFile from ReadMode $\inH ->
            withFile to WriteMode $\outH ->
                loop (B.hGet inH 2048) (process outH) B.null


loop :: (Monad m) => m a -> (a -> m ()) -> (a -> Bool) -> m ()
loop inp outp done = inp >>= \x -> unless (done x) (outp x >> loop inp outp done)


process :: Handle -> B.ByteString -> IO ()
process h bs | B.null bs = return ()
             | otherwise = B.hPut h header >> B.hPut h bs'
                           where header = "P6\n32 64\n255\n" :: B.ByteString
                                 bs'    = B.concatMap (B.replicate 3) bs

这可以在5s多一点时间内完成.这并不可怕,我唯一的比较就是我非常天真的C实现,只需4s就可以了 – 所以这或者理想情况下是我的目标.

以下是上述代码中的RTS:

33,435,345,688 bytes allocated in the heap
      14,963,640 bytes copied during GC
          54,640 bytes maximum residency (77 sample(s))
          21,136 bytes maximum slop
               2 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)

                                    Tot time (elapsed)  Avg pause  Max pause
  Gen  0     64604 colls,     0 par    0.20s    0.25s     0.0000s    0.0001s
  Gen  1        77 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.01s     0.0001s    0.0006s

  INIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  MUT     time    5.09s  (  5.27s elapsed)
  GC      time    0.21s  (  0.26s elapsed)
  EXIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  Total   time    5.29s  (  5.52s elapsed)

  %GC     time       3.9%  (4.6% elapsed)

  Alloc rate    6,574,783,667 bytes per MUT second

  Productivity  96.1% of total user, 92.1% of total elapsed

相当粗糙的结果.当我删除concatMap并且每隔2048字节用标题复制一切时,它几乎是即时的:

70,983,992 bytes allocated in the heap
          48,912 bytes copied during GC
          54,640 bytes maximum residency (2 sample(s))
          19,744 bytes maximum slop
               1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)

                                    Tot time (elapsed)  Avg pause  Max pause
  Gen  0       204 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0000s    0.0000s
  Gen  1         2 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0001s    0.0001s

  INIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  MUT     time    0.01s  (  0.07s elapsed)
  GC      time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  EXIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  Total   time    0.02s  (  0.07s elapsed)

  %GC     time       9.6%  (2.9% elapsed)

  Alloc rate    5,026,838,892 bytes per MUT second

  Productivity  89.8% of total user, 22.3% of total elapsed

所以我想我的问题有两个:

>我如何提高整体表现?
>并且瓶颈不是那么明显,有什么方法可以跟踪它?

谢谢.

编辑

如果有人有兴趣,这是最终的代码和RTS!在阅读了Real World HaskellProfiling and optimization章后,我还能够通过使用ghc的profiler和-prof -auto-all -caf-all找到额外的瓶颈.

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import System.IO
import System.Environment
import Control.Monad
import Data.Monoid
import qualified Data.ByteString.Builder    as BU
import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8 as BL


main :: IO ()
main = do [from, to] <- getArgs
          withFile from ReadMode $\inH ->
              withFile to WriteMode $\outH ->
                  loop (BL.hGet inH 2048) (process outH) BL.null


loop :: (Monad m) => m a -> (a -> m ()) -> (a -> Bool) -> m ()
loop inp outp done = inp >>= \x -> unless (done x) (outp x >> loop inp outp done)


upConcatMap :: Monoid c => (Char -> c) -> BL.ByteString -> c
upConcatMap f bs = mconcat . map f $BL.unpack bs


process :: Handle -> BL.ByteString -> IO ()
process h bs | BL.null bs = return ()
             | otherwise = BU.hPutBuilder h frame
                           where header = "P6\n32 64\n255\n"
                                 bs'    = BU.toLazyByteString $upConcatMap trip bs
                                 frame  = BU.lazyByteString $mappend header bs'
                                 trip c = let b = BU.char8 c in mconcat [b, b, b]
6,383,263,640 bytes allocated in the heap
      18,596,984 bytes copied during GC
          54,640 bytes maximum residency (2 sample(s))
          31,056 bytes maximum slop
               1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)

                                    Tot time (elapsed)  Avg pause  Max pause
  Gen  0     11165 colls,     0 par    0.06s    0.06s     0.0000s    0.0001s
  Gen  1         2 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0001s    0.0002s

  INIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  MUT     time    0.69s  (  0.83s elapsed)
  GC      time    0.06s  (  0.06s elapsed)
  EXIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  Total   time    0.75s  (  0.89s elapsed)

  %GC     time       7.4%  (7.2% elapsed)

  Alloc rate    9,194,103,284 bytes per MUT second

  Productivity  92.6% of total user, 78.0% of total elapsed
Builder怎么样?

这个版本对我来说要快5倍:

process :: Handle -> B.ByteString -> IO ()
process h bs
  | B.null bs = return ()
  | otherwise = B.hPut h header >> B.hPutBuilder h bs'
  where header = "P6\n32 64\n255\n" :: B.ByteString
        bs'    = mconcat $map triple $B.unpack bs 
        triple c = let b = B.char8 c in mconcat [b, b, b]

它分配的垃圾少得多.

ADD:作为参考,运行时统计信息:

4,642,746,104 bytes allocated in the heap
     390,110,640 bytes copied during GC
          63,592 bytes maximum residency (2 sample(s))
          21,648 bytes maximum slop
               1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)

                                    Tot time (elapsed)  Avg pause  Max pause
  Gen  0      8992 colls,     0 par    0.54s    0.63s     0.0001s    0.0017s
  Gen  1         2 colls,     0 par    0.00s    0.00s     0.0002s    0.0002s

  INIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  MUT     time    0.98s  (  1.13s elapsed)
  GC      time    0.54s  (  0.63s elapsed)
  EXIT    time    0.00s  (  0.00s elapsed)
  Total   time    1.52s  (  1.76s elapsed)

  %GC     time      35.4%  (36.0% elapsed)

  Alloc rate    4,718,237,910 bytes per MUT second

  Productivity  64.6% of total user, 55.9% of total elapsed
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