Nginx HTTPS功能部署实践

30.1 文档目的... 2

30.2 文档内容... 2

30.3 单向认证与双向认证的概念... 2

30.3.1 什么是单向认证... 2

30.3.2 什么是双向认证... 2

30.4 openssl的介绍... 3

30.5 Nginx单双向ssl的配置前提... 4

30.6 使用openssl制作证书... 4

30.6.1 服务器单项认证... 4

30.6.1.1 创建并进入sslkey存放目录... 4

30.6.1.2 生成RSA密钥... 4

30.6.1.3 生成一个证书请求... 5

30.6.1.4 修改nginx的主配置文件... 5

30.6.1.5 验证结果... 7

30.6.2 服务器客户端双向认证... 7

30.6.2.1 分别创建证书各自存放目录... 7

30.6.2.2 使用脚本创建新根CA证书... 9

30.6.2.3 使用脚本生成服务器证书... 12

30.6.2.4 配置Nginx的主配置文件... 16

30.6.2.5 验证结果... 18

30.6.2.6 访问出现400 BadReques解决办法生成客户端证书... 18

30.6.2.7 再次验证结果... 23

30.6.2.8 Nginx-SSL注意事项... 24

30.1 文档目的

      本文目的提高自己文档的写作能力及排版能力,加强上课所讲的内容得以锻炼也方便自己以后查阅特写此文档。

30.2 文档内容

     本章内容包括:单向和双向认证的概念、openssl的介绍、Nginx单向ssl的配置前提、使用openssl制作证书(单向认证与双向认证)

30.3 单向认证与双向认证的概念

30.3.1 什么是单向认证

单项认证就是比如你有个密码用户名然后和服务器上的用户信息进行比对一致的话你们就可以建立连接.

30.3.2 什么是双向认证

SSL的双向认证就是客户端要获取服务端的证书,检查下服务端是不是我可以信任的主机,否则我就认为那个站点的内容不可信任,不应该去访问你(浏览器会告诉你),同时服务端也要检查客户端的证书,客户端如果不是服务端所信任的,那服务端也会认为,你不是我的合法用户,我拒绝给你提供服务。所以要让 HTTPS的双向认证顺利完成,就要在服务端给定一个证书,这个证书是浏览器可信任的,同时客户端(浏览器)也要发送给服务端一个证书,服务器端也要信任这个证书。

要想让浏览器纯自然地就去信任服务端的证书,那服务端所使用的证书就得是那几大已经被大家所信任的证书机构给他签名,不过一般要钱。

通俗点来讲就是你有个密码用户名你先发给服务器进行比对,如果一致服务器再把它的密码用户名发到你机器上与你机器上保留的用户信息进行比对如果还一致则建立链接!

30.4 openssl的介绍

openssl为开源软件,在Linux(或UNIX/Cygwin)下创建一个简单的CAcertification authority)是以构建在公钥基础设施pkipublic key infrastructure)基础之上的产生和确定数字证书的第三方可信机构)我们可以利用这个CA进行PKI、数字证书相关的测试。比如,在测试用TomcatApache构建HTTPS双向认证时,我们可以利用自己建立的测试CA来为服务器端颁发服务器数字证书,为客户端(浏览器)生成文件形式的数字证书(可以同时利用openssl生成客户端私钥。

30.5 Nginx单双向ssl的配置前提

  • LNMP环境的前提下

  • 编译安装Nginx时候安装的两个参数--with-http_stub_status_module(是为了启用nginxNginxStatus 功能,用来监控nginx的当前状态)--with-http_ssl_module(启动ssl模块)

  • 安装openssl openssl-devel

[root@LNMP ~]# /application/nginx/sbin/nginx -V

nginx version: nginx/1.6.2

built by gcc 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-11)(GCC)

configure arguments: --user=nginx --group=nginx--prefix=/application/nginx-1.6.2 --with-http_stub_status_module--with-http_ssl_module

30.6 使用openssl制作证书

30.6.1 服务器单项认证

30.6.1.1 创建并进入sslkey存放目录

[root@LNMP ~]# mkdir -p /application/nginx/sslkey

[root@LNMP ~]# cd /application/nginx/sslkey/

30.6.1.2 生成RSA密钥

[root@LNMP sslkey]# openssl genrsa -out key.pem2048

30.6.1.3 生成一个证书请求,和签名请求证书

[root@LNMP sslkey]# openssl req -new -key key.pem-out cert.csr

You are about to be asked to enter informationthat will be incorporatedThere are quite a few fields but you can leave someblank

For some fields there will be a default value,

If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.

Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:cn //输入国家名字

State or Province Name (full name) []:bj //输入省市

Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:bj //输入省市

Organization Name (eg, company) [Default CompanyLtd]:bj //输入公司名称

Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:bj //组织名字

Common Name (eg, your name or your server'shostname) []:www.etiantian.org //要配置的ssl域名

Email Address []:260428042@qq.com //Email地址

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes

to be sent with your certificate request

A challenge password []:123456  //密码

An optional company name []:123456 //密码

签名请求证书把cert.csr签名为server.crt步骤省略


30.6.1.4 修改nginx的主配置文件

[root@LNMP ~]# cat/application/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

worker_processes 1;

events {

   worker_connections  1024;

}

http {

   include       mime.types;

   default_type application/octet-stream;

   sendfile        on;

   keepalive_timeout  65;

    server{

      listen       443;

      server_name  www.etiantian.org;

      ssl               on;

      ssl_certificate      /application/nginx/sslkey/server.crt;

     ssl_certificate_key  /application/nginx/sslkey/server.key;

      ssl_session_timeout  5m;

      ssl_protocols  SSLv3 TLSv1;

      ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+MEDIUM;

      ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;

      location/ {

          root   html/blog;

          index  index.html index.htm;

        }

    }

}

[root@LNMP ~]# /application/nginx/sbin/nginx –t //检查语法

[root@LNMP ~]# /application/nginx/sbin/nginx -sreload //重新启动

30.6.1.5验证结果

wKiom1ht-wDzzfqUAADeZ4TByaw255.png

wKiom1ht-wCBSptaAABFO5py01A163.png

30.6.2 服务器客户端双向认证

30.6.2.1 分别创建证书各自存放目录

[root@LNMP~]# mkdir /application/nginx/ca

[root@LNMP~]# cd /application/nginx/ca

[root@LNMPca]# mkdir newcerts private conf server

newcerts子目录将存放CA签署(颁发)过的数字证书(证书备份目录)。

private目录用于存放CA的私钥。

conf只是用于存放一些简化参数。

Server 目录用于存放自己的证书。

1、在conf目录创建文件openssl.conf配置文件

[root@LNMP~]# cat /application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf

[ ca ] 

default_ca = foo  #默认ca的段名配置好后 openssl 就会

寻找相同段名的配置

[ foo ] 

dir    =/application/nginx/ca    #ca 的顶级目录

database  =/application/nginx/ca/index.txt  #的数据库索引文件

new_certs_dir = /application/nginx/ca/newcerts#新生成的CA目录  

certificate  = /application/nginx/ca/private/ca.crt #CA证书

serial      = /application/nginx/ca/serial   #CA序列号文件

private_key = /application/nginx/ca/private/ca.key # CA私钥

RANDFILE  =/application/nginx/ca/private/.rand  #随机数文件     

default_days = 365   # CA证书的有效期

default_crl_days= 30   #CA证书过期前多久提示

default_md    = md5   # 加密方法

#unique_subject = no    

policy    =policy_any  #客户端默认设置

[ policy_any ] 

countryName = match 

stateOrProvinceName = match 

organizationName = match 

organizationalUnitName = match 

localityName         = optional 

commonName       = supplied 

emailAddress         = optional

30.6.2.2 使用脚本创建新根CA证书

1、查看脚本内容

[root@LNMP ~]# cat/application/nginx/ca/new_ca.sh

#!/bin/sh 

生成CA私钥 

openssl genrsa -out private/ca.key

生成证书请求

openssl req -new -key private/ca.key -outprivate/ca.csr

签名 CA 证书请求,使用自己的私钥来给这个 CA 证书请求签名

openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in private/ca.csr-signkey private/ca.key -out private/ca.crt 

以下三行与创建 CA 秘钥数据库索引文件有关

echo FACE > serial 

touch index.txt 

openssl ca -gencrl -out/application/nginx/ca/private/ca.crl -crldays 7 -config"/application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf"

2、执行脚本创建根CA证书

[root@LNMP ca]# sh new_ca.sh

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus

.......................................++++++

.++++++

e is 65537 (0x10001)

You are about to be asked to enter informationthat will be incorporated

into your certificate request.

What you are about to enter is what is called aDistinguished Name or a DN.

There are quite a few fields but you can leavesome blank

For some fields there will be a default value,

If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.

-----

Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:cn

State or Province Name (full name) []:bj

Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:bj

Organization Name (eg, company) [Default CompanyLtd]:bj

Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:bj

Common Name (eg, your name or your server'shostname) []:www.etiantian.org

Email Address []:260428042@qq.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes

to be sent with your certificate request

A challenge password []:123456

An optional company name []:123456

Signature ok

subject=/C=cn/ST=bj/L=bj/O=bj/OU=bj/CN=www.etiantian.org/emailAddress=60428042@qq.com

Getting Private key

Using configuration from/application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf

3、查看生成的CA证书并保证里边有内容                        

30.6.2.3 使用脚本生成服务器证书

1、查看脚本内容

[root@LNMP ~]# cd /application/nginx/ca/

[root@LNMP ca]# cat new_server.sh

# Create us a key. Don't bother putting apassword on it since you will need it to start apache. If you have a betterwork around I'd love to hear it. 

创建服务器私钥

openssl genrsa -out server/server.key 

利用私钥创建一个证书签名请求

openssl req -new -key server/server.key -outserver/server.csr 

openssl ca -in server/server.csr -certprivate/ca.crt -keyfile private/ca.key -out server/server.crt -config"/application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf" 

2、执行脚本创建生成服务器证书

[root@LNMP ca]#sh new_server.sh

Generating RSAprivate key, 1024 bit long modulus

.....................++++++

...........................................................++++++

e is 65537(0x10001)

You are about tobe asked to enter information that will be incorporated

into yourcertificate request.

What you areabout to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.

There are quitea few fields but you can leave some blank

For some fieldsthere will be a default value,

If you enter'.', the field will be left blank.

Country Name (2letter code) [XX]:cn

State orProvince Name (full name) []:bj

Locality Name(eg, city) [Default City]:bj

OrganizationName (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:bj

OrganizationalUnit Name (eg, section) []:bj

Common Name (eg,your name or your server's hostname) []:www.etiantian.org

Email Address[]:260428042@qq.com

Please enter thefollowing 'extra' attributes

to be sent withyour certificate request

A challengepassword []:123456

An optionalcompany name []:123456

Using configurationfrom /application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf

Check that therequest matches the signature

Signature ok

The Subject'sDistinguished Name is as follows

countryName           :PRINTABLE:'cn'

stateOrProvinceName   :ASN.1 12:'bj'

localityName          :ASN.1 12:'bj'

organizationName      :ASN.1 12:'bj'

organizationalUnitName:ASN.112:'bj'

commonName            :ASN.1 12:'www.etiantian.org'

emailAddress          :IA5STRING:'60428042@qq.com'

Certificate isto be certified until Mar  5 10:14:252016 GMT (365 days)

Sign thecertificate? [y/n]:y

1 out of 1certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y

Write outdatabase with 1 new entries

3、查看生成的服务器证书里边有内容否则后边会报错

30.6.2.4 配置Nginx的主配置文件

[root@LNMP ~]#cat /application/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

worker_processes  1; 

events { 

worker_connections  1024; 

http { 

include       mime.types; 

default_type  application/octet-stream; 

sendfile        on; 

keepalive_timeout  65; 

# HTTPSserver 

server { 

listen       443; 

root html/blog;

index index.phpindex.html index.htm;

server_name  www.etiantian.org; 

ssi on; 

ssi_silent_errorson; 

ssi_typestext/shtml; 

ssl               on; 

ssl_certificate     /application/nginx/ca/server/server.crt; 

ssl_certificate_key  /application/nginx/ca/server/server.key; 

ssl_client_certificate/application/nginx/ca/private/ca.crt; 

ssl_session_timeout  5m; 

ssl_verify_clienton;

ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1; 

ssl_ciphersALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP; 

ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on; 

location / {

        root html/blog;

       index index.php index.html index.htm;

    }

  }

}

[root@LNMP ~]#/application/nginx/sbin/nginx –t //检查语法

[root@LNMP ~]#/application/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload //重新启动

30.6.2.5 验证结果

wKiom1huA63h-eXXAABp00EvXU4594.png

30.6.2.6 访问出现400 Bad Reques解决办法生成客户端证书

1、查看脚本内容

[root@LNMP ~]#cat /application/nginx/ca/new_user.sh

#!/bin/sh 

base="/application//nginx/ca" 

mkdir -p$base/users/

生成客户端私钥

openssl genrsa-des3 -out $base/users/client.key 1024

根据证书生成私钥请求

openssl req -new-key $base/users/client.key -out $base/users/client.csr 

生成客户端证书

openssl ca -in$base/users/client.csr -cert $base/private/ca.crt -keyfile $base/private/ca.key-out $base/users/client.crt -config "/application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf" 

将客户端证书转为PKCS(Personal Information Exchange)12 后缀,使大多数浏览器都能接

openssl pkcs12-export -clcerts -in $base/users/client.crt -inkey $base/users/client.key -out$base/users/client.p12 

2、执行脚本生成客户端证书

[root@LNMP ca]#sh new_user.sh

Generating RSAprivate key, 1024 bit long modulus

....++++++

...................................................++++++

e is 65537(0x10001)

Enter passphrase for /application//nginx/ca/users/client.key:

Verifying -Enter pass phrase for /application//nginx/ca/users/client.key:

Enter pass phrasefor /application//nginx/ca/users/client.key:

You are about tobe asked to enter information that will be incorporated

into yourcertificate request.

What you areabout to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.

There are quitea few fields but you can leave some blank

For some fieldsthere will be a default value,

If you enter'.', the field will be left blank.

-----

Country Name (2letter code) [XX]:cn

State orProvince Name (full name) []:bj

Locality Name(eg, city) [Default City]:bj

OrganizationName (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:bj

OrganizationalUnit Name (eg, section) []:bj

Common Name (eg,your name or your server's hostname) []:www.etiantian.org

Email Address[]:260428042@qq.com

Please enter thefollowing 'extra' attributes

to be sent withyour certificate request

A challengepassword []:123456

An optionalcompany name []:123456

Usingconfiguration from /application/nginx/ca/conf/openssl.conf

Check that therequest matches the signature

Signature ok

The Subject'sDistinguished Name is as follows

countryName           :PRINTABLE:'cn'

stateOrProvinceName   :ASN.1 12:'bj'

localityName          :ASN.1 12:'bj'

organizationName      :ASN.1 12:'bj'

organizationalUnitName:ASN.112:'bj'

commonName            :ASN.1 12:'www.etiantian.org'

emailAddress          :IA5STRING:'60428042@qq.com'

Certificate isto be certified until Mar  5 10:24:172016 GMT (365 days)

Sign thecertificate? [y/n]:y

1 out of 1certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y

Write outdatabase with 1 new entries

Data BaseUpdated

Enter passphrase for /application//nginx/ca/users/client.key:

Enter ExportPassword:

Verifying -Enter Export Password:

3、查看生成的证书

client.p12下载到本地桌面

[root@LNMP ~]#cd /application/nginx-1.6.2/ca/users/

[root@LNMPusers]# sz -y client.p12

30.6.2.7 再次验证结果

在浏览器中输入https://www.etiantian.org访问添加刚才下载下来的证书就可以正常访问了!

wKiom1huAzzirDOjAABv48gdUB4144.png

在这里是将你刚才从服务器上下载下来的client.p12导入就OK了!

wKioL1huAzzw4VqvAABtkL24bRY788.png

wKiom1huA0DDDcjOAABcsvxn0LM352.png

wKiom1huA0Di8jKbAABVRRB2xMM800.png

wKioL1huA0DTesTFAABVyBPtHxs566.png

30.6.2.8 Nginx-SSL注意事项

1、制作证书时会提示输入密码,服务器证书和客户端证书密码可以不相同。

2、服务器证书和客户端证书制作时提示输入省份、城市、域名信息等,需保持一致。

3Nginx默认未开启SSI,上面配置已开启。


说明:本内容来自老男孩教育(www.oldboyedu.com)王同学的笔记!


转自:http://blog.51cto.com/oldboy/1889346

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