linux笔记 乱七八糟

虚拟化:     现有的硬件模拟出多个硬件设备(逻辑) 云计算: 条件: [root@localhost 桌面]# cat /proc/cpuinfo 半虚拟化:openVZ Xen 完全虚拟化:KVM workstation intel:vmx Amd:svm [root@localhost 桌面]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep flags | tail -n 1 | grep --color vmx yum-config-manager | grep --color gpgcheck yum install ip* rh318 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum grouplist [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# yum groupinstall 虚拟化* /etc/init.d/libvirtd 检查 /etc/init.d/libvirtd status /etc/init.d/libvirtd start   出现错误 启动守护进程 find / -name "virt*" ls -ld /etc/rc.d virsh list --all 查看所有虚拟机 [root@localhost yum.repos.d]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ [root@localhost network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth0.bak /etc/init.d/network restart brctl show [root@localhost 桌面]# pvcreate /dev/sda4   Physical volume "/dev/sda4" successfully created [root@localhost 桌面]# vgcreate vg00 /dev/sda4   Volume group "vg00" successfully created [root@localhost 桌面]# vgdisplay vim /etc/host 192.168.2.1  station1.example.com 192.168.2.17 station17.example.com ssh 192.168.2.17 man 5 init 启动流程: Upstart:事件 mbr: |--------------------------------------- |446(mbr) | 64(分区表) = 16*4 | 55aa |--------------------------------------- 446==grub (启动引导程序) cd /boot/grub grub.conf []#hexdump -C stage1    16进制表示 dd if=/dev/sda of=mbr.bak bs=512 count=1 救援模式:grub-install (再生龙)   rhgb : 启动 以图形显示 quiet: 不显示kernel加载的详细信息 cat /proc/cmdline chmod 777 * rpm -ivh kernel-de default=0 timeout=15 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz #hiddenmenu title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64.debug)         root (hd0,0)         kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64.debug ro root=UUID=87cdb2bf-0a65-4bcf-80e5-66b1becda0e6 rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8 KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us crashkernel=auto crashkernel=auto quiet         initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64.debug.img title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64)         root (hd0,0)         kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64 ro root=UUID=87cdb2bf-0a65-4bcf-80e5-66b1becda0e6 rd_NO_LUKS rd_NO_LVM rd_NO_MD rd_NO_DM LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8 KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us crashkernel=auto crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet         initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-131.0.15.el6.x86_64.img chroot /mnt/sysimage ifconfig eth0 192.168.2.19  临时IP地址 initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-131.********* --------------------------------------------------- inittab 进程 文件 /etc/inittab  ---> /etc/init: --->login == root 启动模式: 无密码状态下进入系统: 按下e 按下e 输入 空格 single 按下b id    : 5   : initdefault : 自定义 :3,5: 选项         :动作 [root@station198 桌面]# virt-manager ------------------------------------------------------------ [root@station198 etc]# cd yum.repos.d [root@station198 yum.repos.d]# ls redhat.repo  rhel-source.repo [root@station198 yum.repos.d]# cat rhel-source.repo /etc/sysconfig/network-script /etc/init.d/network restart ------------------------------------------------------------ 服务基本: apache suqid vsftpd samba nfs mail=postfix dns dhcp xinetd 域名访问: iptables + selinux ----------> 开启 dns:域名解析 /etc/hosts  ip地址<---->主机名 ---------------------------- bind(普通文件)       mydns(mysql) ---------------------------- 顶级域名    .(root) 13台 -------------------------------------------      |       |             |           | 一级域名    com      cn           org         net www.163.com  (FQDN)完整域名 192.168.2.1 192.168.2.1 & 255.255.255.0 = 192.168.2. 主机名:1 域名:192.168.2. vim /etc/sysconfig/network vim /etc/rc.local [root@station198 etc]# ssh 192.168.2.17 [root@station198 etc]# yum --enablerepo=rhel install bind* [root@station198 etc]# rpm -qa bind [root@station198 etc]# rpm -qa |grep bind [root@station198 etc]# rpm -ql bind [root@station198 etc]# etc/init.d/named start/restart [root@station198 etc]# ls /etc/named chroot ----/var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf  == / etc目录 var目录 etc    var/named ----------------------------------------- named.conf 服务器主配: zone "163.com" IN {     type hint;            file "named.ca"; /var/named/chroot/var/named/named.ca } /var/named/chroot/var/named/named.ca ip    hostname www    zone "." IN {     type hint; hint/master/           file "named.ca"; /var/named/chroot/var/named/named.ca }; named.conf 路径 ll www.163.com 封包==     |---------------------------     |dnsip 53(虚拟端口)     |本机ip     |www.163.com     |--------------------------- /etc/yum.repos.d/kk.repo [rhel-server] name=rhel6cp baseurl=ftp://192.168.2.1/rpm/rhel6/Server enabled=0 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release [root@station198 etc]# man 5 named.conf type master; file "example197.com.zone";var include "/etc/example197.com.zones"; /var/named/chroot/etc/example197.com.zones touch example197.com.zones chown root.named example197.com.zones cp named.conf named.conf.v1 /etc/init.d/named restart touch example197.com.zones cp -a /etc/named.conf named.conf   --------- var/named rm file cd var/named cp -a named.localhost example197.com /var/named/chroot/var/named example17.com.zone /var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf cp -a /var/named/named.localhost /var/named/chroot/var/named/ 查看错误日志:tail -f /var/log/messages 切根目录:cat /etc/sysconfig/named   dns 指向自己 host www.example17.com iptables -L vim named.conf linster any; localhost:any; cd /etc/sysconfig/network-sc vim ifcfg-eth0 virt-manager DNS1=192.168.2.17 /etc/init.d/named restart /etc/init.d/network restart nslookup /var/named/chroot/etc zone "2.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {     type master;     file "192.168.2.0.example17.com.zone"; }; cp -a example197.com.zone 192.168.2.0.example197.com.zone 17 PTR station197.example197.com. 17 PTR www.example197.com. 17 PTR www1.example197.com. 18 PTR www2.example197.com. cd /var/www/html touch index.html echo '<h1>station197.example197.com<h1>' > index.html /etc/init.d/httpd start 11.27 [root@station198 桌面]# /etc/init.d/iptables status [root@station198 桌面]# /etc/init.d/iptables stop mail:postfix sendmail dns + MS 记录 邮件服务器:25端口 + smtp 协议 上传 客户端:pop3 + 110 回传 DNS: [root@station198 桌面]# /etc/init.d/named restart [root@station198 桌面]# /etc/init.d/named status [root@station198 桌面]# cd /var/named/chroot/var/named/ 邮件存放位置:/var/spool/mail/uplook dig -t MX example30.com vim /var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf example17.com.zone lsof -i :25 ps -aux | grep 1699 netstat -tunalp | grep :25 [root@station198 桌面]# rpm -aq |grep postfix cd /etc/ :set nu 开启行号 /etc/init.d/postfix restart useradd station197 passwd station197 su - station197 [root@station198 桌面]# mail station197@example197.com 空行 ctl+d [root@station198 桌面]#grep -v "#" /etc/postfix/main.cf | grep -v "^$" postqueue -p postqueue -f 清除 netstat -tunapl | grep pop3 netstat -tunapl | grep 110 /etc/init.d/dovecot start cd /etc/dovecot vim dovecot.conf 8337797 netstat -tunapl | grep pop3 [root@station197 ~]# cd /etc/dovecot/conf.d [root@station197 conf.d]# vim 10-mail.conf [root@station197 mnt]# cd /var/www/html [root@station197 html]# mv squirrelmail-1.4.22 mail [root@station197 html]# pwd /var/www/html mkdir -p /var/local/squirrelmail/data chown -R apache:apache /var/local/squirrelmail/data [root@station197 html]#useradd station172 -s /sbin/nologin [root@station197 html]#vim /etc/aliases [root@station197 html]#newaliases 文件传输:ftp samba:安全  nfs:配置 ----------------------------------- ftp:vsftp:安全 purftp:功能 ----------------------------------- 1.ftp 用户:匿名 普通 虚拟 2.安全:tcpwarrp 用户分离(黑白) 独立日志 3.性能:rate man 5 vsftpd.conf rpm -qa | grep vsftp vsftpd:192.168.2.0/24 sftpd:192.168.2.0/24 vim /etc/hosts.allow vsftpd:192.168.2.0/24 vim /etc/hosts.deny cd /var/ftp cd /usr/share/doc/vsftpd-2.2.2/ cp vsftpd.pam /etc/pam.d/ftp 特权用户 vip:123456  pub:123456  在vsftpd.conf中 映射成真是的用户 1.生成:*.db 2.验证模块:pam 3.vsftpd.conf cd /etc/vsftpd pam.d目录下 vsftpd
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