15、 Heartbeat+DRBD+MySQL高可用架构方案与实施过程细节

15、 Heartbeat+DRBD+MySQL高可用架构方案与实施过程细节

参考自:http://www.voidcn.com/article/p-xwvcyrba-bcw.html


heartbeat和keepalived应用场景及区别

很多网友说为什么不使用keepalived而使用长期不更新的heartbeat,下面说一下它们之间的应用场景及区别:

1、对于web,db,负载均衡(lvs,haproxy,nginx)等,heartbeat和keepalived都可以实现

2、lvs最好和keepalived结合,因为keepalived最初就是为lvs产生的,(heartbeat没有对RS的健康检查功能,heartbeat可以通过ldircetord来进行健康检查的功能)

3、mysql双主多从,NFS/MFS存储,他们的特点是需要数据同步,这样的业务最好使用heartbeat,因为heartbeat有自带的drbd脚本


总结:

无数据同步的应用程序高可用可选择keepalived, 

有数据同步的应用程序高可用可选择heartbeat(DRBD)

1、

安装部署准备

(1)架构拓扑

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架构说明:

一主多从最常用的架构,多个从库可以使用lvs来提供读的负载均衡。

解决一主单点的问题,当主库宕机后,可以实现主库宕机后备节点自动接管,所有的从库会自动和新的主库进行同步,实现了mysql主库的热备方案


(2)系统环境:

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(3)部署环境

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(4)主库服务器数据分区信息

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2、heatbeat安装部署

(1)、配置服务器间心跳连接路由

主节点

[root@master1 ~]# route add -host 172.16.4.3 dev eth2<==到对端的心跳路由

[root@master1 ~]# route add -host 172.168.4.3 dev eth3<==到对端的DRBD数据路由


备节点

[root@master2 ~]# route add -host 172.16.4.2 dev eth2

[root@master2 ~]# route add -host 172.168.4.2 dev eth3


(2)、安装heartbeat

[root@master1 ~]# yum install heartbeat -y

[root@master1 ~]# yum install heartbeat -y

提示:需要执行两遍安装heartbeat操作


(3)、配置heartbeat

主备节点两端的配置文件(ha.cfauthkeysharesources)完全相同

1)、ha.cf

[root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/ha.d/ha.cf

#log configure

debugfile /var/log/ha-debug

logfile /var/log/ha-log

logfacility local1

#options configure

keepalive 2

deadtime 30

warntime 10

initdead 120

#bcast eth2

mcast eth2 225.0.0.7 694 1 0

#node configure

auto_failback on

node master1 <==主节点主机名

node master2 <==备节点主机名

crm no

2)、配置authkeys

[root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/ha.d/authkeys

auth 1

1 sha1 47e9336850f1db6fa58bc470bc9b7810eb397f04

3)、配置haresources

[root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/ha.d/haresources

master1 IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1

#master1 IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1 drbddisk::data Filesystem::/dev/drbd1::/data::ext3 mysqld

说明:

drbddisk::data <==启动drbd data资源,相当于执行/etc/ha.d/resource.d/drbddisk data stop/start操作

Filesystem::/dev/drbd1::/data::ext3 <==drbd分区挂载到/data目录,相当于执行/etc/ha.d/resource.d/Filesystem /dev/drbd1 /data ext3 stop/start <==相当于系统中执行mount /dev/drbd1 /data

mysql <==启动mysql服务脚本,相当于/etc/init.d/mysql stop/start

(4)、启动heartbeat

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat start

[root@master1 ~]# chkconfig heartbeat off

说明:关闭开机自启动,当服务器重启时,需要人工去启动

(5)、测试heartbeat

正常状态

[root@master1 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.2/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

[root@master2 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.3/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

说明:master1节点拥有vip地址,master2节点没有


模拟主节点宕机后的状态

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat stop

[root@master2 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.3/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

说明:master1宕机后,vip地址漂移到master2节点上,master2成为主节点


模拟主节点故障恢复后的状态

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat start

[root@master1 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.2/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

说明:master1抢占vip资源

3、DRBD

安装部署

(1)、新添加硬盘

[root@master1 ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb               #sdb磁盘分两个分区sdb1和sdb2

[root@master1 ~]# partprobe

[root@master1 ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1          #sdb2分区为meta data分区,不需要格式化操作

[root@master1 ~]# tune2fs -c -1 /dev/sdb1      #设置最大挂载数为-1

(2)、安装DRBD

[root@master1 ~]# yum install kmod-drbd83 drbd83 -y

[root@master1 ~]# modprobe drbd               

#注意:不要设置echo 'modprobe drbd' >>/etc/rc.loca开机自动加载drbd模块,如果drbd服务是开机自启动的,会先启动drbd服务在加载drbd的顺序,导致drbd启动不了出现的问题

(3)、配置DRBD

主备节点两端配置文件完全一致

[root@master1 ~]# cat /etc/drbd.conf

global {

# minor-count 64;

# dialog-refresh 5; # 5 seconds

# disable-ip-verification;

usage-count no;

}

common {

protocol C;

disk {

on-io-error   detach;

#size 454G;

no-disk-flushes;

no-md-flushes;

}

net {

sndbuf-size 512k;

# timeout       60;    #  6 seconds  (unit = 0.1 seconds)

# connect-int   10;    # 10 seconds  (unit = 1 second)

# ping-int      10;    # 10 seconds  (unit = 1 second)

# ping-timeout   5;    # 500 ms (unit = 0.1 seconds)

max-buffers     8000;

unplug-watermark   1024;

max-epoch-size  8000;

# ko-count 4;

# allow-two-primaries;

cram-hmac-alg "sha1";

shared-secret "hdhwXes23sYEhart8t";

after-sb-0pri disconnect;

after-sb-1pri disconnect;

after-sb-2pri disconnect;

rr-conflict disconnect;

# data-integrity-alg "md5";

# no-tcp-cork;

}

syncer {

rate 120M;

al-extents 517;

}

}

resource data {

on master1 {

device     /dev/drbd1;

disk       /dev/sdb1;

address    192.168.4.2:7788;

meta-disk  /dev/sdb2 [0];

}

on master2 {

device     /dev/drbd1;

disk       /dev/sdb1;

address    192.168.4.3:7788;

meta-disk  /dev/sdb2 [0];

}

}

(4)、初始化meta分区

[root@master1 ~]# drbdadm create-md data

Writing meta data...

initializing activity log

NOT initialized bitmap

New drbd meta data block successfully created.

(5)、初始化设备同步(覆盖备节点,保持数据一致)

[root@master1 ~]# drbdadm -- --overwrite-data-of-peer primary data

(6)、启动drbd

[root@master1 ~]# drbdadm up all

[root@master1 ~]# chkconfig drbd off

(7)、挂载drbd分区到data数据目录

[root@master1 ~]# drbdadm primary all

[root@master1 ~]# mount /dev/drbd1 /data          #说明:/data目录为数据库的数据目录

(8)、测试DRBD

正常状态

[root@master1 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:Connected ro:Primary/Secondary ds:UpToDate/UpToDate C r-----

ns:497984 nr:0 dw:1 dr:498116 al:1 bm:31 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

[root@master2 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:Connected ro:Secondary/Primary ds:UpToDate/UpToDate C r-----

ns:0 nr:497984 dw:497984 dr:0 al:0 bm:30 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

#说明:master1为主节点,master2为备节点

模拟master1宕机

[root@master1 ~]# umount /dev/drbd1

[root@master1 ~]# drbdadm down all

[root@master2 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:WFConnection ro:Secondary/Unknown ds:UpToDate/DUnknown C r-----

ns:0 nr:497985 dw:497985 dr:0 al:0 bm:30 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

[root@master2 ~]# drbdadm primary all

[root@master2 ~]# mount /dev/drbd1 /data

[root@master2 ~]# df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda3 19G 5.1G 13G 29% /

/dev/sda1 190M 18M 163M 10% /boot

tmpfs 60M 0 60M 0% /dev/shm

/dev/drbd1 471M 11M 437M 3% /data

#说明:master1宕机后,master2可以升级为主节点,可挂载drbd分区继续使用

4、MySQL

安装部署

注意:三台数据库都安装mysql服务,master2只安装到makeinstall即可,mysqld服务不要设置为开机自启动

(1)、解决perl编译问题

echo 'export LC_ALL=C'>> /etc/profile

source /etc/profile

(2)、安装CAMKE

cd /home/xu/tools

wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.8/cmake-2.8.4.tar.gz

tar zxf cmake-2.8.4.tar.gz

cd cmake-2.8.4

./configure

make & make install

(3)、创建用户

groupadd mysql

useradd -g mysql mysql

(4)、编译安装mysql

wget http://mysql.ntu.edu.tw/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.27.tar.gz

tar zxf mysql-5.5.27.tar.gz

cd mysql-5.5.27

cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \

-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysql.sock \

-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \

-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \

-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=complex \

-DWITH_READLINE=1 \

-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1

make -j 4

make install

(5)、设置mysql环境变量

[root@master1 ~]# echo 'PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin' >>/etc/profile

[root@master1 ~]# source /etc/profile

(6)、初始化数据库

[root@master1 ~]# mount /dev/drbd1 /data                 #说明:数据库存放数据的目录是drbd分区

[root@master1 ~]# cd /usr/local/mysql/

[root@master1 ~]# ./scripts/mysql_install_db --datadir=/data/ --user=mysql

(7)、启动数据库

[root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/init.d/mysqld

datadir=/data                                            #说明:修改mysql启动脚本,指定数据库的目录为/data

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start

[root@master1 ~]# chkconfig mysqld off

(8)、测试数据库

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases;"

+--------------------+

| Database |

+--------------------+

| information_schema |

| mysql |

| performance_schema |

+--------------------+

5、故障切换测试

(1)、架构正常状态

master1主节点正常状态

[root@master1 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.2/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

[root@master1 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:Connected ro:Primary/Secondary ds:UpToDate/UpToDate C r-----

ns:39558 nr:12 dw:39570 dr:151 al:16 bm:1 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "create database coral;"

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases like 'coral';"

+------------------+

| Database (coral) |

+------------------+

| coral |

+------------------+

#说明:master1为主节点,拥有VIP地址,为drbd的主节点


master2备节点正常状态

[root@master2 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.3/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

[root@master2 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:Connected ro:Secondary/Primary ds:UpToDate/UpToDate C r-----

ns:0 nr:48 dw:48 dr:0 al:0 bm:0 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

#说明:master2备节点没有VIP地址,为drbd备节点


(2)、模拟master1宕机故障状态

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat stop <==模拟master1故障宕机

[root@master2 ~]# tailf /var/log/ha-log <==查看备节点接管日志

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:09:36 info: Received shutdown notice from 'master1'.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:09:36 info: Resources being acquired from master1.

heartbeat[15293]: 2013/01/23_04:09:36 info: acquire local HA resources (standby).

heartbeat[15294]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: No local resources [/usr/share/heartbeat/ResourceManager listkeys master2] to acquire.

heartbeat[15293]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: local HA resource acquisition completed (standby).

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: Standby resource acquisition done [foreign].

harc[15319]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: Running /etc/ha.d/rc.d/status status

mach_down[15335]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: Taking over resource group IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1

ResourceManager[15361]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: Acquiring resource group: master1 IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1 drbddisk::data Filesystem::/dev/drbd1::/data::ext3 mysqld

IPaddr[15388]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 INFO: Resource is stopped

ResourceManager[15361]: 2013/01/23_04:09:37 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/IPaddr 192.168.4.1/16/eth1 start

IPaddr[15486]: 2013/01/23_04:09:38 INFO: Using calculated netmask for 192.168.4.1: 255.255.0.0

IPaddr[15486]: 2013/01/23_04:09:38 INFO: eval ifconfig eth1:0 192.168.4.1 netmask 255.255.0.0 broadcast 192.168.255.255

IPaddr[15457]: 2013/01/23_04:09:38 INFO: Success

ResourceManager[15361]: 2013/01/23_04:09:38 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/drbddisk data start

Filesystem[15636]: 2013/01/23_04:09:39 INFO: Resource is stopped

ResourceManager[15361]: 2013/01/23_04:09:39 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/Filesystem /dev/drbd1 /data ext3 start

Filesystem[15717]: 2013/01/23_04:09:39 INFO: Running start for /dev/drbd1 on /data

Filesystem[15706]: 2013/01/23_04:09:39 INFO: Success

ResourceManager[15361]: 2013/01/23_04:09:40 info: Running /etc/init.d/mysqld start

mach_down[15335]: 2013/01/23_04:09:44 info: /usr/share/heartbeat/mach_down: nice_failback: foreign resources acquired

mach_down[15335]: 2013/01/23_04:09:44 info: mach_down takeover complete for node master1.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:09:44 info: mach_down takeover complete.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:10:09 WARN: node master1: is dead

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:10:09 info: Dead node master1 gave up resources.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:10:09 info: Link master1:eth2 dead.

#说明:当备节点无法检测到主节点的心跳时,自动接管资源,启动VIP地址、drbd服务,自动挂载drbd,启动mysqld服务,备节点接管后,数据依然存在,检测启动的服务如下:

[root@master2 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.3/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

[root@master2 ~]# cat /proc/drbd

version: 8.3.13 (api:88/proto:86-96)

GIT-hash: 83ca112086600faacab2f157bc5a9324f7bd7f77 build by mockbuild@builder10.centos.org, 2012-05-07 11:56:36

1: cs:Connected ro:Primary/Secondary ds:UpToDate/UpToDate C r-----

ns:3 nr:95 dw:98 dr:10 al:1 bm:0 lo:0 pe:0 ua:0 ap:0 ep:1 wo:b oos:0

[root@master2 ~]# df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda3 19G 4.7G 14G 26% /

/dev/sda1 190M 18M 163M 10% /boot

tmpfs 60M 0 60M 0% /dev/shm

/dev/drbd1 471M 40M 408M 9% /data

[root@master2 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases like 'coral';"

+------------------+

| Database (coral) |

+------------------+

| coral |

+------------------+


(3)、模拟master1宕机恢复状态

启动的顺序是:先启动VIP--启动drbd资源--挂载drbd分区--启动mysqld服务,日志如下:

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat start

[root@master1 ~]# tailf /var/log/ha-log

heartbeat[27970]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: Version 2 support: no

heartbeat[27970]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 WARN: Logging daemon is disabled --enabling logging daemon is recommended

heartbeat[27970]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: **************************

heartbeat[27970]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: Configuration validated. Starting heartbeat 2.1.3

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: heartbeat: version 2.1.3

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: Heartbeat generation: 1351554533

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: glib: UDP multicast heartbeat started for group 225.0.0.7 port 694 interface eth2 (ttl=1 loop=0)

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: G_main_add_TriggerHandler: Added signal manual handler

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: G_main_add_TriggerHandler: Added signal manual handler

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: G_main_add_SignalHandler: Added signal handler for signal 17

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:14 info: Local status now set to: 'up'

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:16 info: Link master2:eth2 up.

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:16 info: Status update for node master2: status active

harc[27978]: 2013/01/09_17:34:16 info: Running /etc/ha.d/rc.d/status status

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:17 info: Comm_now_up(): updating status to active

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:17 info: Local status now set to: 'active'

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:17 info: remote resource transition completed.

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:17 info: remote resource transition completed.

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:17 info: Local Resource acquisition completed. (none)

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:18 info: master2 wants to go standby [foreign]

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:20 info: standby: acquire [foreign] resources from master2

heartbeat[27997]: 2013/01/09_17:34:20 info: acquire local HA resources (standby).

ResourceManager[28010]: 2013/01/09_17:34:20 info: Acquiring resource group: master1 IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1 drbddisk::data Filesystem::/dev/drbd1::/data::ext3 mysqld

IPaddr[28037]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Resource is stopped

ResourceManager[28010]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/IPaddr 192.168.4.1/16/eth1 start

IPaddr[28135]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Using calculated netmask for 192.168.4.1: 255.255.0.0

IPaddr[28135]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: eval ifconfig eth1:0 192.168.4.1 netmask 255.255.0.0 broadcast 192.168.255.255

IPaddr[28106]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Success

ResourceManager[28010]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/drbddisk data start

Filesystem[28286]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Resource is stopped

ResourceManager[28010]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/Filesystem /dev/drbd1 /data ext3 start

Filesystem[28367]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Running start for /dev/drbd1 on /data

Filesystem[28356]: 2013/01/09_17:34:21 INFO: Success

ResourceManager[28010]: 2013/01/09_17:34:22 info: Running /etc/init.d/mysqld start

heartbeat[27997]: 2013/01/09_17:34:25 info: local HA resource acquisition completed (standby).

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:25 info: Standby resource acquisition done [foreign].

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:25 info: Initial resource acquisition complete (auto_failback)

heartbeat[27971]: 2013/01/09_17:34:25 info: remote resource transition completed.


备节点释放资源顺序:停止mysqld服务--卸载drbd1分区--设置drbd为备节点--关闭VIP地址,日志如下:

[root@master2 ~]# tailf /var/log/ha-log

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Heartbeat restart on node master1

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Link master1:eth2 up.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Status update for node master1: status init

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Status update for node master1: status up

harc[16151]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Running /etc/ha.d/rc.d/status status

harc[16167]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: Running /etc/ha.d/rc.d/status status

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:53 info: all clients are now paused

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: Status update for node master1: status active

harc[16183]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: Running /etc/ha.d/rc.d/status status

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: all clients are now resumed

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: remote resource transition completed.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: master2 wants to go standby [foreign]

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: standby: master1 can take our foreign resources

heartbeat[16199]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: give up foreign HA resources (standby).

ResourceManager[16212]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: Releasing resource group: master1 IPaddr::192.168.4.1/16/eth1 drbddisk::data Filesystem::/dev/drbd1::/data::ext3 mysqld

ResourceManager[16212]: 2013/01/23_04:26:55 info: Running /etc/init.d/mysqld stop

ResourceManager[16212]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/Filesystem /dev/drbd1 /data ext3 stop

Filesystem[16297]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 INFO: Running stop for /dev/drbd1 on /data

Filesystem[16297]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 INFO: Trying to unmount /data

Filesystem[16297]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 INFO: unmounted /data successfully

Filesystem[16286]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 INFO: Success

ResourceManager[16212]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/drbddisk data stop

ResourceManager[16212]: 2013/01/23_04:26:57 info: Running /etc/ha.d/resource.d/IPaddr 192.168.4.1/16/eth1 stop

IPaddr[16445]: 2013/01/23_04:26:58 INFO: ifconfig eth1:0 down

IPaddr[16416]: 2013/01/23_04:26:58 INFO: Success

heartbeat[16199]: 2013/01/23_04:26:58 info: foreign HA resource release completed (standby).

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:26:58 info: Local standby process completed [foreign].

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:27:02 WARN: 1 lost packet(s) for [master1] [15:17]

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:27:02 info: remote resource transition completed.

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:27:02 info: No pkts missing from master1!

heartbeat[13209]: 2013/01/23_04:27:02 info: Other node completed standby takeover of foreign resources.

6、从库同VIP同步

(1)、master配置

1)、设置server-id值并开启Binlog参数

[root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf

log-bin=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-bin

server-id = 3

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld restart

#注意:只有master1有重启操作,master2无需重启操作,因为备节点的mysql是未启动状态,备节点只有heartbeat才能启动mysql

2)、授权并建立同步账户rep

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot -p

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'rep'@'192.168.4.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'rep';


(2)、slave配置

1)、设置server-id值并关闭binlog设置

[root@slave1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf

#log-bin=mysql-bin

server-id = 4

[root@slave1 ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld restart          

#说明:从库无需开启binlog日志功能,除非有需求做级联复制架构或对mysql增量备份操作才开启

2)、配置同步参数

[root@Slave ~]# mysql -uroot

CHANGE MASTER TO

MASTER_HOST='192.168.4.1',

MASTER_PORT=3306,

MASTER_USER='rep',

MASTER_PASSWORD='rep',

MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000001',

MASTER_LOG_POS=0;

3)、检查是否主从同步

[root@Slave ~]# mysql -uroot

mysql> show slave status\G

...

Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

...


(3)、模拟高可用宕机切换是否影响从库同步

1)、主从正常状态

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot

mysql> create database coral1;

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show slave status\G"|egrep "Slave_IO_Running|Slave_SQL_Running"

Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases like 'coral%';"

+-------------------+

| Database (coral%) |

+-------------------+

| coral1 |

+-------------------+

2)、模拟高可用主节点宕机

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat stop             #说明:模拟主节点宕机

[root@master2 ~]# ip addr|grep eth1

3: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000

inet 192.168.4.3/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global eth1

inet 192.168.4.1/16 brd 192.168.255.255 scope global secondary eth1:0

[root@master2 ~]# mysql -uroot

mysql> create database coral2;

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.08 sec)                      #说明:VIP地址已经漂移到master2上面

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show slave status\G"|egrep "Slave_IO_Running|Slave_SQL_Running"

Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases like 'coral%'"

+-------------------+

| Database (coral%) |

+-------------------+

| coral1 |

| coral2 |

+-------------------+

#注意:高可用主备节点切换过程中,会有一段时间从库才能连接上,大于在60秒内

#说明:此时主从同步是正常的

3)、模拟高可用主节点宕机恢复

[root@master1 ~]# /etc/init.d/heartbeat start

[root@master1 ~]# mysql -uroot

mysql> create database coral3;

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show slave status\G"|egrep "Slave_IO_Running|Slave_SQL_Running"

Slave_IO_Running: Yes

Slave_SQL_Running: Yes

[root@slave1 ~]# mysql -uroot -e "show databases like 'coral%'"

+-------------------+

| Database (coral%) |

+-------------------+

| coral1 |

| coral2 |

| coral3 |

+-------------------+

#说明:高可用主节点故障恢复后也不影响主从库的同步

7、高可用脑裂问题及解决方案

(1)、导致裂脑发生的原因

1、高可用服务器之间心跳链路故障,导致无法相互检查心跳

2、高可用服务器上开启了防火墙,阻挡了心跳检测

3、高可用服务器上网卡地址等信息配置不正常,导致发送心跳失败

4、其他服务配置不当等原因,如心跳方式不同,心跳广播冲突,软件BUG等


(2)、防止裂脑一些方案

1、加冗余线路

2、检测到裂脑时,强行关闭心跳检测(远程关闭主节点,控制电源的电路fence)

3、做好脑裂的监控报警

4、报警后,备节点在接管时设置比较长的时间去接管,给运维人员足够的时间去处理(人为处理)

5、启动磁盘锁,正在服务的一方锁住磁盘,裂脑发生时,让对方完全抢不走"共享磁盘资源"


磁盘锁存在的问题:

使用锁磁盘会有死锁的问题,如果占用共享磁盘的一方不主动"解锁"另一方就永远得不到共享磁盘,假如服务器节点突然死机或崩溃,就不可能执行解锁命令,备节点也就无法接管资源和服务了,有人在HA中设计了智能锁,正在提供服务的一方只在发现心跳全部断开时才会启用磁盘锁,平时就不上锁

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