ffmpeg与ffserver的协同工作

ffmpeg与ffserver的协同工作

ruihanl@126.com

2014/1/9

 

ffmpeg和ffserver配合使用可以实现实时的流媒体服务,可以实时传输来自摄像头的数据,客户端可以采用HTTP、RTSP、RTP协议等播放视频流。

 

一、概念和流程

ffmpeg和ffserver配合使用涉及到四个概念:

1.      ffmpeg,负责媒体文件的转码工作,把你服务器上的源媒体文件转换成要发送出去的流媒体文件。

2.      ffserver,负责响应客户端的流媒体请求,把流媒体数据发送给客户端。

3.      ffserver.conf,ffserver启动时的配置文件,在这个文件中主要是对网络协议,缓存文件feed1.ffm和要发送的流媒体文件的格式参数做具体的设定。

4.      feed1.ffm,可以看成是一个流媒体数据的缓存文件,ffmpeg把转码好的数据发送给ffserver,如果没有客户端连接请求,ffserver把数据缓存到该文件中。

 

工作流程如下:

1、 启动ffserver,配置参数

ffserver先于ffmpeg启动,它在启动的时候需要加参数-f指定其配置文件,配置文件里包含端口信息、缓冲文件配置、传送流配置(如编码方式,帧率,采样率……)。

 

2、 启动ffmpeg,输入流

    启动ffmpeg,向缓冲文件输入数据流,数据流可以来自摄像头,也可以来自本来就存在的文件。

feed1.ffm是一个缓冲文件,fserver启动后,feed1.ffm就会自动被创建,feed1.ffm开始的部分已经写入向客户端传送流的配置信息,在feed1.ffm做缓冲用的时候,这些信息是不会被覆盖掉。

ffmpeg启动的一个关键参数就是“http://ip:port/feed1.ffm”,其中ip是运行ffserver主机的ip,如果ffmpeg和ffserver都在同一系统中运行的话,用localhost或者127.0.0.1也行。ffmpeg启动后会与ffserver建立一个连接(短暂的连接),通过这第一次的连接,ffmpeg从ffserver那里获取了向客户端输出流的配置,并把这些配置作为自己编码输出的配置,然后ffmpeg断开了这次连接,再次与ffserver建立连接(长久的连接),利用这个连接ffmpeg会把编码后的数据发送给ffserver。如果你观察ffserver端的输出就会发现这段时间会出现两次HTTP的200,这就是两次连接的过程。

3、连接过程

ffmpeg从摄像头获取数据后,按照输出流的编码方式编码,然后发送给ffserver,ffserver收到ffmpeg的数据后,如果网络上没有播放的请求,就把数据写入feed1.ffm中缓存,写入时把数据加上些头信息然后分块,每块4096B(每块也有结构),当feed1.ffm的大小到了ffserver.conf中规定的大小后,就会从文件开始(跳过头)写入,覆盖旧的数据。直到网络上有播放的请求,ffserver从feed1.ffm中读取数据,发送给客户端

 

 

二、配置与应用

 

ffserver可以配置为带缓冲或者不带缓冲,其中不带缓冲的只需要配置stream的位置,不需要feed和ffmpeg。

ffserver配置文件可以参考ffmpeg源码中的doc/ffserver.conf,里边有详细的注释。文件的结构可以分为头部信息、实时流信息、格式信息。

 

1、不带缓冲

最简单的配置文件如下

Port 9999

RTSPPort9990

BindAddress0.0.0.0

MaxClients1000

MaxBandwidth100000

CustomLog–

#只需要指定待播放的文件的路径以及格式信息即可

<Streamtest.flv>

   File "/home/test.flv"

   Format flv

</Stream>

#rtsp应用

<Streamtest.mpg>

File"myfile/testvideo/test.mpg"

Format rtp

</Stream>

 

命令符:

1. 在终端里输入ffserver -f /etc/ffserver.conf

2. 在浏览器里或者相关播放器地址里输入 http://ipAddr:port/test.flv

备注:1、Port为配置里面的9999,文件名直接输入流的文件名即可。

     2、实际测试flv等格式都可以播放。

3、测试需要的test.flv的可以使用ffmpeg录制,命令是

ffmpeg -f v4l2 -s 320*240 -r 10 -i /dev/video2-vcodec flv  /test.flv

 

 

2、带缓冲

配置文件如下

Port 9999

RTSPPort9990

BindAddress0.0.0.0

MaxClients1000

MaxBandwidth10000

CustomLog–

 

<Feed feed1.ffm>

File/tmp/feed1.ffm

FileMaxSize40k

ACL allow127.0.0.1

</Feed>

 

<Stream test.flv>

Feedfeed1.ffm

Formatflv

BitExact

DctFastint

IdctSimple

VideoFrameRate10

VideoSize320x240

VideoBitRate64

VideoGopSize10

NoAudio

 

PreRoll10

StartSendOnKey

MaxTime100

 

</Stream>

 

 

 

 

 

要点:

1、实时流数据配置,其中注意文件的位置,可以放到tmp文件夹下面,这样会被自动清理掉。

2、每个不同的流都来自feed1.ffm,因此配置越多的流,当执行的时候,会逐个转换,影响速度,一般不建议多配置。

3、ACL allow表示ip的地址范围,比如ACL allow 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255

 

命令符:

1. 在终端里输入

ffserver -f/etc/ffserver.conf

2. a.若是文件方式则输入

ffmpeg -i/home/test.flv http://127.0.0.1:9999/test.flv

b.若是实时视频则输入

ffmpeg -fv4l2 -framerate 30 -i /dev/video2http://127.0.0.1:9999/feed1.ffm

 

3、运行客户端命令

http://192.168.1.230:9999/test.flv

rtsp://ip:port/rtsp.mpg

 

 

三、流的格式

文件的拓展名对应一定的格式,常用的有:

拓展名

格式

flv

flv

mp4

mp4

mpg

rtp

 

libx264

.asf

asf

.mjpg

mjpg

.jpg

jpeg

 

配置例子:

 

Multipart JPEG

 

<Stream test.mjpg>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format mpjpeg

VideoFrameRate 2

VideoIntraOnly

NoAudio

Strict -1

</Stream>

Single JPEG

 

<Stream test.jpg>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format jpeg

VideoFrameRate 2

VideoIntraOnly

VideoSize 352x240

NoAudio

Strict -1

</Stream>

Flash

 

<Stream test.swf>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format swf

VideoFrameRate 2

VideoIntraOnly

NoAudio

</Stream>

ASF compatible

 

<Stream test.asf>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format asf

VideoFrameRate 15

VideoSize 352x240

VideoBitRate 256

VideoBufferSize 40

VideoGopSize 30

AudioBitRate 64

StartSendOnKey

</Stream>

MP3 audio

 

<Stream test.mp3>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format mp2

AudioCodec mp3

AudioBitRate 64

AudioChannels 1

AudioSampleRate 44100

NoVideo

</Stream>

Ogg Vorbis audio

 

<Stream test.ogg>

Feed feed1.ffm

Metadata title "Stream title"

AudioBitRate 64

AudioChannels 2

AudioSampleRate 44100

NoVideo

</Stream>

Real with audio only at 32 kbits

 

<Stream test.ra>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format rm

AudioBitRate 32

NoVideo

</Stream>

Real with audio and video at 64 kbits

 

<Stream test.rm>

Feed feed1.ffm

Format rm

AudioBitRate 32

VideoBitRate 128

VideoFrameRate 25

VideoGopSize 25

</Stream>

For stream coming from a file: you onlyneed to set the input filename and optionally a new format.

 

<Stream file.rm>

File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/tlive.rm"

NoAudio

</Stream>

  •  

 

<Stream file.asf>

File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/test.asf"

NoAudio

Metadata author "Me"

Metadata copyright "Super MegaCorp"

Metadata title "Test stream from disk"

Metadata comment "Test comment"

</Stream>

 

 

 

 

 

实测可行的例子

配置:

<Streammy.mp4>

Formatrtp

File"/home/my.mp4"

</Stream>

 

客户端命令 rtsp://192.168.1.230:9990/my.mp4

端口就是rtp的端口。使用http协议不能访问。

 

 

 

<Streamtest.mp4>

Feedfeed1.ffm

Formatrtp

BitExact

DctFastint

IdctSimple

VideoFrameRate10

VideoSize320x240

VideoBitRate64

VideoGopSize10

NoAudio

 

PreRoll10

StartSendOnKey

MaxTime100

 

</Stream>

 

ffmpeg -fv4l2 -r 10 -I /dev/video2 http://127.0.0.1:9999/feed1.ffm

客户端命令 rtsp://192.168.1.230:9990/test.mp4


<Streamlive.h264>

Formatrtp

Feedfeed1.ffm

VideoCodeclibx264

VideoFrameRate24

VideoBitRate100

VideoSize480x272

AVPresetVideodefault

AVPresetVideobaseline

AVOptionVideoflags +global_header

 

AudioCodeclibfaac

AudioBitRate32

AudioChannels2

AudioSampleRate22050

AVOptionAudioflags +global_header

</Stream>

 

使用H.264编码时,使用命令

 

ffmpeg -f v4l2 -s 176*144 -r 2 -i /dev/video0-vcodec libx264 http://192.168.1.6:8090/feed1.ffm

ffmpeg-f v4l2 -s 176*144 -r 2 -vpre libx264-hq.ffpreset -i /dev/video0 -vcodeclibx264 http://localhost:8090/feed1.ffm

ffmpeg-f v4l2 -s 176*144 -r 10 -vpre libx264-hq.ffpreset-i /dev/video0 -vcodec libx264 -f rtprtp://192.168.1.105:6060 > /tmp/x264.sdp

 

四、协议

HTTP协议的地址格式为:

http://ffserver_ip_address:http_port/stream_name[options]

RTSP协议的地址格式为:

http://ffserver_ip_address:rtsp_port/stream_name[options]

 


Sampleffserver configuration file

Port 8090
 
BindAddress 0.0.0.0
 
MaxHTTPConnections 2000
 
MaxClients 1000
 
MaxBandwidth 1000
 
CustomLog -
 
 
##################################################################
 
<Feed feed1.ffm>
 
# ffmpeg http://localhost:8090/feed1.ffm
 
File /tmp/feed1.ffm
FileMaxSize 200K
 
ACL allow 127.0.0.1
 
</Feed>
 
 
##################################################################
 
<Stream test1.mpg>
 
Feed feed1.ffm
 
# Format of the stream : you can choose among:
# mpeg       : MPEG-1 multiplexed video and audio
# mpegvideo  : only MPEG-1 video
# mp2        : MPEG-2 audio (use AudioCodec to select layer 2 and 3 codec)
# ogg        : Ogg format (Vorbis audio codec)
# rm         : RealNetworks-compatible stream. Multiplexed audio and video.
# ra         : RealNetworks-compatible stream. Audio only.
# mpjpeg     : Multipart JPEG (works with Netscape without any plugin)
# jpeg       : Generate a single JPEG image.
# asf        : ASF compatible streaming (Windows Media Player format).
# swf        : Macromedia Flash compatible stream
# avi        : AVI format (MPEG-4 video, MPEG audio sound)
Format mpeg
 
# Bitrate for the audio stream. Codecs usually support only a few
# different bitrates.
AudioBitRate 32
 
# Number of audio channels: 1 = mono, 2 = stereo
AudioChannels 1
 
# Sampling frequency for audio. When using low bitrates, you should
# lower this frequency to 22050 or 11025. The supported frequencies
# depend on the selected audio codec.
AudioSampleRate 44100
 
# Bitrate for the video stream
VideoBitRate 64
 
# Ratecontrol buffer size
VideoBufferSize 40
 
# Number of frames per second
VideoFrameRate 3
 
# Size of the video frame: WxH (default: 160x128)
# The following abbreviations are defined: sqcif, qcif, cif, 4cif, qqvga,
# qvga, vga, svga, xga, uxga, qxga, sxga, qsxga, hsxga, wvga, wxga, wsxga,
# wuxga, woxga, wqsxga, wquxga, whsxga, whuxga, cga, ega, hd480, hd720,
# hd1080
VideoSize 160x128
 
# Transmit only intra frames (useful for low bitrates, but kills frame rate).
#VideoIntraOnly
 
# If non-intra only, an intra frame is transmitted every VideoGopSize
# frames. Video synchronization can only begin at an intra frame.
VideoGopSize 12
 
# More MPEG-4 parameters
# VideoHighQuality
# Video4MotionVector
 
# Choose your codecs:
#AudioCodec mp2
#VideoCodec mpeg1video
 
# Suppress audio
#NoAudio
 
# Suppress video
#NoVideo
 
#VideoQMin 3
#VideoQMax 31
 
# Set this to the number of seconds backwards in time to start. Note that
# most players will buffer 5-10 seconds of video, and also you need to allow
# for a keyframe to appear in the data stream.
#Preroll 15
 
# ACL:
 
# You can allow ranges of addresses (or single addresses)
#ACL ALLOW <first address> 
 
# You can deny ranges of addresses (or single addresses)
#ACL DENY <first address> 
 
# You can repeat the ACL allow/deny as often as you like. It is on a per
# stream basis. The first match defines the action. If there are no matches,
# then the default is the inverse of the last ACL statement.
#
# Thus 'ACL allow localhost' only allows access from localhost.
# 'ACL deny 1.0.0.0 1.255.255.255' would deny the whole of network 1 and
# allow everybody else.
 
</Stream>
 
 
##################################################################
# Example streams
 
 
# Multipart JPEG
 
#<Stream test.mjpg>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format mpjpeg
#VideoFrameRate 2
#VideoIntraOnly
#NoAudio
#Strict -1
#</Stream>
 
 
# Single JPEG
 
#<Stream test.jpg>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format jpeg
#VideoFrameRate 2
#VideoIntraOnly
##VideoSize 352x240
#NoAudio
#Strict -1
#</Stream>
 
 
# Flash
 
#<Stream test.swf>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format swf
#VideoFrameRate 2
#VideoIntraOnly
#NoAudio
#</Stream>
 
 
# ASF compatible
 
<Stream test.asf>
Feed feed1.ffm
Format asf
VideoFrameRate 15
VideoSize 352x240
VideoBitRate 256
VideoBufferSize 40
VideoGopSize 30
AudioBitRate 64
StartSendOnKey
</Stream>
 
 
# MP3 audio
 
#<Stream test.mp3>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format mp2
#AudioCodec mp3
#AudioBitRate 64
#AudioChannels 1
#AudioSampleRate 44100
#NoVideo
#</Stream>
 
 
# Ogg Vorbis audio
 
#<Stream test.ogg>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Title "Stream title"
#AudioBitRate 64
#AudioChannels 2
#AudioSampleRate 44100
#NoVideo
#</Stream>
 
 
# Real with audio only at 32 kbits
 
#<Stream test.ra>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format rm
#AudioBitRate 32
#NoVideo
#NoAudio
#</Stream>
 
 
# Real with audio and video at 64 kbits
 
#<Stream test.rm>
#Feed feed1.ffm
#Format rm
#AudioBitRate 32
#VideoBitRate 128
#VideoFrameRate 25
#VideoGopSize 25
#NoAudio
#</Stream>
 
 
##################################################################
# A stream coming from a file: you only need to set the input
# filename and optionally a new format. Supported conversions:
#    AVI -> ASF
 
#<Stream file.rm>
#File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/tlive.rm"
#NoAudio
#</Stream>
 
#<Stream file.asf>
#File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/test.asf"
#NoAudio
#Author "Me"
#Copyright "Super MegaCorp"
#Title "Test stream from disk"
#Comment "Test comment"
#</Stream>
 
 
##################################################################
# RTSP examples
#
# You can access this stream with the RTSP URL:
#   rtsp://localhost:5454/test1-rtsp.mpg
#
# A non-standard RTSP redirector is also created. Its URL is:
#   http://localhost:8090/test1-rtsp.rtsp
 
#<Stream test1-rtsp.mpg>
#Format rtp
#File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/test1.mpg"
#</Stream>
 
 
# Transcode an incoming live feed to another live feed,
# using libx264 and video presets
 
#<Stream live.h264>
#Format rtp
#Feed feed1.ffm
#VideoCodec libx264
#VideoFrameRate 24
#VideoBitRate 100
#VideoSize 480x272
#AVPresetVideo default
#AVPresetVideo baseline
#AVOptionVideo flags +global_header
#
#AudioCodec libfaac
#AudioBitRate 32
#AudioChannels 2
#AudioSampleRate 22050
#AVOptionAudio flags +global_header
#</Stream>
 
##################################################################
# SDP/multicast examples
#
# If you want to send your stream in multicast, you must set the
# multicast address with MulticastAddress. The port and the TTL can
# also be set.
#
# An SDP file is automatically generated by ffserver by adding the
# 'sdp' extension to the stream name (here
# http://localhost:8090/test1-sdp.sdp). You should usually give this
# file to your player to play the stream.
#
# The 'NoLoop' option can be used to avoid looping when the stream is
# terminated.
 
#<Stream test1-sdp.mpg>
#Format rtp
#File "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/test1.mpg"
#MulticastAddress 224.124.0.1
#MulticastPort 5000
#MulticastTTL 16
#NoLoop
#</Stream>
 
 
##################################################################
# Special streams
 
# Server status
 
<Stream stat.html>
Format status
 
# Only allow local people to get the status
ACL allow localhost
ACL allow 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
 
#FaviconURL http://pond1.gladstonefamily.net:8080/favicon.ico
</Stream>
 
 
# Redirect index.html to the appropriate site
 
<Redirect index.html>
URL http://www.ffmpeg.org/
</Redirect>
 
 

http://www.ffmpeg.org/

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