Unity3d之坦克对战游戏 AI设计

作业要求

  • 使用“感知-思考-行为”模型,建模 AI 坦克
  • 场景中要放置一些障碍阻挡对手视线
  • 坦克需要放置一个矩阵包围盒触发器,以保证 AI 坦克能使用射线探测对手方位
  • AI 坦克必须在有目标条件下使用导航,并能绕过障碍。(失去目标时策略自己思考)
  • 实现人机对战

这次作业的具体要求如上面所述,简单来说就是实现一个AI坦克,能够搜索玩家并且发现玩家之后会追踪玩家并且发射子弹,同时满足能够避开障碍物。

演示视频

请移步: https://www.bilibili.com/video/av25190155/

游戏实现

游戏场景设计

这次作业参考了去年师兄的作品,利用官方教程Tanks! Tutorial里面的模型构建了自己的游戏场景。效果如下:
这里写图片描述

接着打开Window -> Navigation,设置游戏对象的Navigation,如果是障碍物则设置Navigation Area为not walkable。如下:
这里写图片描述

接着进行Bake,以便AI寻路。
这里写图片描述

游戏关键代码解析

AI坦克的状态图如下:
这里写图片描述

为了实现坦克自动寻路,需要为坦克对象添加NavMeshAgent组件。这么做是为了当AI坦克发现玩家之后,只需要为NavMeshAgent设置destination,AI坦克便能够自动寻路,前往玩家所在位置。
这里写图片描述

从状态图中可以看出,一开始AI坦克如果在自己附近没有发现玩家,则会进入巡逻状态,这里我预先设置了几个点,AI坦克会随机选取一个作为目的点,并自动寻路移动到目的点,并继续下次巡逻;在这个过程中如果AI坦克发现了附近的玩家,则会进行追捕,我把玩家的位置设置为AI坦克的目的点,从而使AI坦克自动向玩家方向移动;当距离进入了AI坦克的射程范围,则AI坦克会通过协程每隔一秒发射一颗子弹。

相关代码:

public class AITank : Tank {

    public delegate void recycle(GameObject tank);
    public static event recycle recycleEvent;

    private Vector3 target;
    private bool gameover;

    // 巡逻点
    private static Vector3[] points = { new Vector3(37.6f,0,0), new Vector3(40.9f,0,39), new Vector3(13.4f, 0, 39),
        new Vector3(13.4f, 0, 21), new Vector3(0,0,0), new Vector3(-20,0,0.3f), new Vector3(-20, 0, 32.9f), 
        new Vector3(-37.5f, 0, 40.3f), new Vector3(-37.5f,0,10.4f), new Vector3(-40.9f, 0, -25.7f), new Vector3(-15.2f, 0, -37.6f),
        new Vector3(18.8f, 0, -37.6f), new Vector3(39.1f, 0, -18.1f)
    };
    private int destPoint = 0;
    private NavMeshAgent agent;
    private bool isPatrol = false;

    private void Awake()
    {
        destPoint = UnityEngine.Random.Range(0, 13);
    }

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        setHp(100f);
        StartCoroutine(shoot());
        agent = GetComponent<NavMeshAgent>();
    }

    private IEnumerator shoot()
    {
        while (!gameover)
        {
            for(float i = 1; i > 0; i -= Time.deltaTime)
            {
                yield return 0;
            }
            // 当敌军坦克距离玩家坦克不到20时开始射击
            if(Vector3.Distance(transform.position, target) < 20)
            {
                GameObjectFactory mf = Singleton<GameObjectFactory>.Instance;
                GameObject bullet = mf.getBullet(tankType.Enemy);
                bullet.transform.position = new Vector3(transform.position.x, 1.5f, transform.position.z) + transform.forward * 1.5f;
                bullet.transform.forward = transform.forward;

                // 发射子弹
                Rigidbody rb = bullet.GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
                rb.AddForce(bullet.transform.forward * 20, ForceMode.Impulse);
            }
        }
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update () {
        gameover = GameDirector.getInstance().currentSceneController.isGameOver();
        if (!gameover)
        {
            target = GameDirector.getInstance().currentSceneController.getPlayerPos();
            if (getHp() <= 0 && recycleEvent != null)
            {//如果npc坦克被摧毁,则回收它
                recycleEvent(this.gameObject);
            }
            else
            {
                if(Vector3.Distance(transform.position, target) <= 30)
                {
                    isPatrol = false;
                    //否则向玩家坦克移动
                    agent.autoBraking = true;
                    agent.SetDestination(target);
                }
                else
                {
                    patrol();
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            NavMeshAgent agent = GetComponent<NavMeshAgent>();
            agent.velocity = Vector3.zero;
            agent.ResetPath();
        }
    }

    private void patrol()
    {
        if(isPatrol)
        {
            if(!agent.pathPending && agent.remainingDistance < 0.5f)
                GotoNextPoint();
        }
        else
        {
            agent.autoBraking = false;
            GotoNextPoint();
        }
        isPatrol = true;
    }

    private void GotoNextPoint()
    {
        agent.SetDestination(points[destPoint]);
        destPoint = (destPoint + 1) % points.Length;
    }
}

子弹类的要点在于通过OnCollisionEnter事件判断在子弹碰撞到其他物体时,爆炸范围内的所有碰撞体对象,如果子弹是AI坦克发射的并且碰撞体为玩家,则玩家坦克会扣血,子弹失活回收;如果子弹是玩家发射并且碰撞体是AI坦克,则AI坦克扣血。还要注意当子弹落地时(我通过transform.position.y < 0 判断)应该把子弹回收。

public class Bullet : MonoBehaviour {
    // 子弹伤害半径
    public float explosionRadius = 3f;
    private tankType type;

    public void setTankType(tankType type)
    {
        this.type = type;
    }

    private void Update()
    {
        if(this.transform.position.y < 0 && this.gameObject.activeSelf)
        {
            GameObjectFactory mf = Singleton<GameObjectFactory>.Instance;
            // 落地爆炸
            ParticleSystem explosion = mf.getPs();
            explosion.transform.position = transform.position;
            explosion.Play();
            mf.recycleBullet(this.gameObject);
        }
    }

    void OnCollisionEnter(Collision other)
    {
        // 获得单实例工厂
        GameObjectFactory mf = Singleton<GameObjectFactory>.Instance;
        ParticleSystem explosion = mf.getPs();
        explosion.transform.position = transform.position;

        // 获取爆炸范围内的所有碰撞体
        Collider[] colliders = Physics.OverlapSphere(transform.position, explosionRadius);
        for(int i = 0; i < colliders.Length; i++)
        {
            if(colliders[i].tag == "tankPlayer" && this.type == tankType.Enemy || colliders[i].tag == "tankEnemy" && this.type == tankType.Player)
            {
                // 根据击中坦克与爆炸中心的距离计算伤害值
                float distance = Vector3.Distance(colliders[i].transform.position, transform.position);//被击中坦克与爆炸中心的距离
                float hurt = 100f / distance;
                float current = colliders[i].GetComponent<Tank>().getHp();
                c`这里写代码片`olliders[i].GetComponent<Tank>().setHp(current - hurt);
            }
        }

        explosion.Play();
        if (this.gameObject.activeSelf)
        {
            mf.recycleBullet(this.gameObject);
        }
    }
}

这个项目中我通过单实例工厂GameObjectFactory来统一管理玩家player、 AI坦克、子弹、爆炸粒子系统等游戏对象,实现方法与老师前面课上讲的内容一致。通过Dictionary来维护。

public class GameObjectFactory : MonoBehaviour {
    // 玩家
    public GameObject player;
    // npc
    public GameObject tank;
    // 子弹
    public GameObject bullet;
    // 爆炸粒子系统
    public ParticleSystem ps;

    private Dictionary<int, GameObject> usingTanks;
    private Dictionary<int, GameObject> freeTanks;

    private Dictionary<int, GameObject> usingBullets;
    private Dictionary<int, GameObject> freeBullets;

    private List<ParticleSystem> psContainer;

    private void Awake()
    {
        usingTanks = new Dictionary<int, GameObject>();
        freeTanks = new Dictionary<int, GameObject>();
        usingBullets = new Dictionary<int, GameObject>();
        freeBullets = new Dictionary<int, GameObject>();
        psContainer = new List<ParticleSystem>();
    }

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        //回收坦克的委托事件
        AITank.recycleEvent += recycleTank;
    }

    public GameObject getPlayer()
    {
        return player;
    }

    public GameObject getTank()
    {
        if(freeTanks.Count == 0)
        {
            GameObject newTank = Instantiate<GameObject>(tank);
            usingTanks.Add(newTank.GetInstanceID(), newTank);
            //在一个随机范围内设置坦克位置
            newTank.transform.position = new Vector3(Random.Range(-100, 100), 0, Random.Range(-100, 100));
            return newTank;
        }
        foreach (KeyValuePair<int, GameObject> pair in freeTanks)
        {
            pair.Value.SetActive(true);
            freeTanks.Remove(pair.Key);
            usingTanks.Add(pair.Key, pair.Value);
            pair.Value.transform.position = new Vector3(Random.Range(-100, 100), 0, Random.Range(-100, 100));
            return pair.Value;
        }
        return null;
    }

    public GameObject getBullet(tankType type)
    {
        if (freeBullets.Count == 0)
        {
            GameObject newBullet = Instantiate(bullet);
            newBullet.GetComponent<Bullet>().setTankType(type);
            usingBullets.Add(newBullet.GetInstanceID(), newBullet);
            return newBullet;
        }
        foreach (KeyValuePair<int, GameObject> pair in freeBullets)
        {
            pair.Value.SetActive(true);
            pair.Value.GetComponent<Bullet>().setTankType(type);
            freeBullets.Remove(pair.Key);
            usingBullets.Add(pair.Key, pair.Value);
            return pair.Value;
        }
        return null;
    }

    public ParticleSystem getPs()
    {
        for(int i = 0; i < psContainer.Count; i++)
        {
            if (!psContainer[i].isPlaying) return psContainer[i];
        }
        ParticleSystem newPs = Instantiate<ParticleSystem>(ps);
        psContainer.Add(newPs);
        return newPs;
    }

    public void recycleTank(GameObject tank)
    {
        usingTanks.Remove(tank.GetInstanceID());
        freeTanks.Add(tank.GetInstanceID(), tank);
        tank.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = new Vector3(0, 0, 0);
        tank.SetActive(false);
    }

    public void recycleBullet(GameObject bullet)
    {
        usingBullets.Remove(bullet.GetInstanceID());
        freeBullets.Add(bullet.GetInstanceID(), bullet);
        bullet.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = new Vector3(0, 0, 0);
        bullet.SetActive(false);
    }
}

然后为了实现一个比较好的游戏体验,我实现了一个MainCameraControl来控制主摄像机的移动跟随效果,并且能够通过游戏场景中所有坦克的距离大小来设置摄像机的Size,从而视觉体验更佳~具体实现见下面代码,注释比较清楚~

public class MainCameraControl : MonoBehaviour {

    public float m_DampTime = 0.2f;                 // 相机refocus的时间
    public float m_ScreenEdgeBuffer = 4f;           // 最靠近边界的坦克与边界之间的缓冲大小
    public float m_MinSize = 6.5f;                  // 相机Size最小值
    [HideInInspector] public List<Transform> m_Targets; // 保存所有坦克的transform


    private Camera m_Camera;                        
    private float m_ZoomSpeed;                      
    private Vector3 m_MoveVelocity;                 
    private Vector3 m_DesiredPosition;             


    private void Awake()
    {
        m_Camera = Camera.main;
    }

    public void setTarget(Transform transform)
    {
        m_Targets.Add(transform);
    }


    private void FixedUpdate()
    {
        // 把相机移动到希望的位置
        Move();
        // 改变相机size
        Zoom();
    }


    private void Move()
    {
        FindAveragePosition();
        transform.position = Vector3.SmoothDamp(transform.position, m_DesiredPosition, ref m_MoveVelocity, m_DampTime);
    }

    // 计算平均位置
    private void FindAveragePosition()
    {
        Vector3 averagePos = new Vector3();
        int numTargets = 0;

        for (int i = 0; i < m_Targets.Count; i++)
        {
            if (!m_Targets[i].gameObject.activeSelf)
                continue;
            averagePos += m_Targets[i].position;
            numTargets++;
        }

        if (numTargets > 0)
            averagePos /= numTargets;

        averagePos.y = transform.position.y;
        m_DesiredPosition = averagePos;
    }


    private void Zoom()
    {
        float requiredSize = FindRequiredSize();
        m_Camera.orthographicSize = Mathf.SmoothDamp(m_Camera.orthographicSize, requiredSize, ref m_ZoomSpeed, m_DampTime);
    }

    // 计算合适的Size
    private float FindRequiredSize()
    {
        Vector3 desiredLocalPos = transform.InverseTransformPoint(m_DesiredPosition);
        float size = 0f;

        for (int i = 0; i < m_Targets.Count; i++)
        {
            if (!m_Targets[i].gameObject.activeSelf)
                continue;

            Vector3 targetLocalPos = transform.InverseTransformPoint(m_Targets[i].position);
            Vector3 desiredPosToTarget = targetLocalPos - desiredLocalPos;

            size = Mathf.Max(size, Mathf.Abs(desiredPosToTarget.y));
            size = Mathf.Max(size, Mathf.Abs(desiredPosToTarget.x) / m_Camera.aspect);
        }

        size += m_ScreenEdgeBuffer;
        size = Mathf.Max(size, m_MinSize);

        return size;
    }

    // 初始化相机
    public void SetStartPositionAndSize()
    {
        FindAveragePosition();
        transform.position = m_DesiredPosition;
        m_Camera.orthographicSize = FindRequiredSize();
    }
}

场记SceneController内容也比较简单,主要负责通知工厂初始化各种游戏对象,如player、AI坦克等,并初始化主摄像机,然后实现IUserAction接口中声明的函数即可。

public class SceneController : MonoBehaviour, IUserAction {

    public GameObject player;
    private bool gameOver = false;
    private int enemyCount = 6;
    private GameObjectFactory mf;
    private MainCameraControl cameraControl;


    private void Awake()
    {
        GameDirector director = GameDirector.getInstance();
        director.currentSceneController = this;
        mf = Singleton<GameObjectFactory>.Instance;
        player = mf.getPlayer();
        cameraControl = GetComponent<MainCameraControl>();
        cameraControl.setTarget(player.transform);
    }

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        for(int i = 0; i < enemyCount; i++)
        {
            GameObject gb = mf.getTank();
            cameraControl.setTarget(gb.transform);
        }
        Player.destroyEvent += setGameOver;

        // 初始化相机位置
        cameraControl.SetStartPositionAndSize();
    }

    // 更新相机位置
    void Update () {
        Camera.main.transform.position = new Vector3(player.transform.position.x, 15, player.transform.position.z);
    }

    public Vector3 getPlayerPos()
    {
        return player.transform.position;
    }

    public bool isGameOver()
    {
        return gameOver;
    }
    public void setGameOver()
    {
        gameOver = true;
    }

    public void moveForward()
    {
        player.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = player.transform.forward * 20;
    }
    public void moveBackWard()
    {
        player.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = player.transform.forward * -20;
    }

    public void turn(float offsetX)
    {
        float y = player.transform.localEulerAngles.y + offsetX * 5;
        float x = player.transform.localEulerAngles.x;
        player.transform.localEulerAngles = new Vector3(x, y, 0);
    }

    public void shoot()
    {
        GameObject bullet = mf.getBullet(tankType.Player);
        // 设置子弹位置
        bullet.transform.position = new Vector3(player.transform.position.x, 1.5f, player.transform.position.z) + player.transform.forward * 1.5f;
        // 设置子弹方向
        bullet.transform.forward = player.transform.forward;

        // 发射子弹
        Rigidbody rb = bullet.GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
        rb.AddForce(bullet.transform.forward * 20, ForceMode.Impulse);
    }
}

完整代码请到我的github上查看:https://github.com/CarolSum/Unity3d-Learning/tree/master/hw9

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