【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

Ansible 从1.7+版本开始支持Windows,实测Windows Server 2008 R2及以上版本系统经简单配置可正常与Ansible通信。但需要满足以下几点:
1、管理机必须是linux系统,且按装Python Winrm模块
2、底层通信基于PowerShell,版本为3.0+,Management Framework版本为3.0+
3、远程windows主机开启Winrm服务

2.更改powershell策略为remotesigned
在命令行中输入 start powershell就可启动powershell
通过Get-ExecutionPolicy查看脚本执行策略;通过Set-ExecutionPolicy UnRestricted更改脚本执行策略
【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

3.升级PowerShell至3.0+
Window 7和Windows Server 2008 R2默认安装的有PowerShell,但版本号一般为2.0版本,所以我们需升级至3.0+,Windows PowerShell 3.0使用的是 .netframework 4.0
【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

下载upgrade_to_ps3.ps1,右击使用powershell运行后重启系统

【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

或者使用Ansible 官方提供初始化脚本,脚本主要完成如下操作:
检查最后安装证书的指纹
配置错误处理
检测Power shell版本
检查/启动WimRM服务
确保WinRM运行之后,检查有PS会话配置
确保有SSL监听
检查基本鉴权
配置防火墙允许WinRM HTTPS链接
本地测试通过网络方式连接是否正常

注意:如果提示系统中禁止执行脚本,可以在Powershell 命令行界面输入 set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned 然后输入Y,在执行脚本就不会报

4.设置Windows远端管理(WS-Management,WinRM)服务
注意以下操作在cmd中执行,而非powershell中,winrm 服务默认都是未启用的状态:
winrm quickconfig
查看winrm service listener:winrm e winrm/config/listener
配置auth 为true(默认为false):winrm set winrm/config/service/auth @{Basic="true"} 或者winrm set winrm/config/service/auth '@{Basic="true"} '
配置允许非加密方式:winrm set winrm/config/service @{AllowUnencrypted="true"}

【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

【Absible学习】ansible管理windows系统

至此windows远端管理(WS-Management,WinRM)服务的环境配置完成!

  • 控制主机linux:
    如果没有安装pip, 先安装对应于你的Python版本的pip:
    [root@Super svn]# easy_install pip    #wget https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py;python get-pip.py
    Installed /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/pip-10.0.1-py2.7.egg
    Processing dependencies for pip
    Finished processing dependencies for pip
    [root@Super svn]# 
    [root@Super svn]# pip install paramiko PyYAML Jinja2 httplib2 six  #pip install pywinrm paramiko PyYAML Jinja2 httplib2 six
    [root@Super 118920]# tail -2 /etc/ansible/hosts 
    [windows]
    10.15.97.100 ansible_ssh_user="administrator" ansible_ssh_pass="123123" ansible_ssh_port=5985 ansible_connection="winrm" ansible_winrm_server_cert_validation=ignore
    [root@Super ~]#

防火墙需放行5989、5986

  • 连通性
    win_ping:Windows系统下的ping模块,常用来测试主机是否存活。
[root@Super ~]# ansible 10.15.97.100 -m win_ping
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}
[root@Super ~]#

* 远程执行命令

远程执行命令分为远程执行windows 原生自有命令通过raw 模块,如:"ipconfig "
远程执行ansible的win_command模块也可以执行命令,即ansible的扩展命令如"whoami"
默认是乱码,需要修改winrm模块文件

[root@Super ~]# cp /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/winrm/protocol.py{,.20180718bak}
[root@Super ~]# sed -i "s#tdout_buffer.append(stdout)#tdout_buffer.append(stdout.decode('gbk').encode('utf-8'))#g" /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/winrm/protocol.py
[root@Super ~]# sed -i "s#stderr_buffer.append(stderr)#stderr_buffer.append(stderr.decode('gbk').encode('utf-8'))#g" /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/winrm/protocol.py
[root@Super ~]#
  • 获取ip地址
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "ipconfig"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter 本地连接:

   Connection-specific DNS Suffix  . : 
   Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::e9ce:231:8bc6:45ea%11
   IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 10.15.97.100
   Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
   Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 10.15.97.254

Tunnel adapter isatap.{BB164424-6017-46EB-978A-5E7CFDF80A14}:

   Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
   Connection-specific DNS Suffix  . : 

[root@Super ~]#
  • 获取身份
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_command -a "whoami"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
wthost\administrator

[root@Super ~]#
  • 移动文件
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\DBFPlus.exe D:\Ansible\back\'"
ERROR! failed at splitting arguments, either an unbalanced jinja2 block or quotes: cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\DBFPlus.exe D:\Ansible\back\'
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\DBFPlus.exe D:\Ansible\back\DBFPlus.exe'"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
        1 file(s) moved.

[root@Super ~]#

移动文件目标端也需要制定到文件,而不能只制定到所在目录位置

[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\ D:\Ansible\back\'"
ERROR! failed at splitting arguments, either an unbalanced jinja2 block or quotes: cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\ D:\Ansible\back\'
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product\ D:\Ansible\back'"
10.15.97.100 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
The system cannot find the file specified.
non-zero return code

[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product D:\Ansible\back\'"
ERROR! failed at splitting arguments, either an unbalanced jinja2 block or quotes: cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product D:\Ansible\back\'
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "cmd /c 'move /y D:\Ansible\product D:\Ansible\back'"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
        1 dir(s) moved.

[root@Super ~]#

移动文件夹源端和目标端目录都不能带反斜杠/。且将源的整个目录移到目的端目录里。

  • 创建文件夹
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "md d:\Ansible\justin"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>

    Directory: D:\Ansible

Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name                              
----                -------------     ------ ----                              
d----         2018/7/18     20:13            justin                            

[root@Super ~]#
  • 删除文件或目录
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_file -a "path=d:\Ansible\justin state=absent"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true
}
[root@Super ~]#
  • 结束某程序
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m raw -a "taskkill /F /IM snmp.exe /T"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
SUCCESS: The process with PID 1412 (child process of PID 548) has been terminated.

[root@Super ~]#
  • 文件传输
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_copy -a 'src=/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip dest=D:\soft\'
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "d797ae640e37a1de6bb02b1e7fb435d7919effec", 
    "dest": "'D:\\soft\\zjcfg.zip'", 
    "operation": "file_copy", 
    "original_basename": "zjcfg.zip", 
    "size": 131374, 
    "src": "/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip"
}
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_copy -a 'src=/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip dest=D:\ansible\'
10.15.97.100 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false, 
    "checksum": "d797ae640e37a1de6bb02b1e7fb435d7919effec", 
    "dest": "'D:\u0007nsible\\zjcfg.zip'", 
    "msg": "Get-AnsibleParam: Parameter 'dest' has an invalid path 'D:\u0007nsible\\' specified.", 
    "operation": "file_copy", 
    "original_basename": "zjcfg.zip", 
    "size": 131374, 
    "src": "/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip"
}
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_copy -a 'src=/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip dest=D:\'
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "d797ae640e37a1de6bb02b1e7fb435d7919effec", 
    "dest": "'D:\\zjcfg.zip'", 
    "operation": "file_copy", 
    "original_basename": "zjcfg.zip", 
    "size": 131374, 
    "src": "/app/svn/127_Client/118919/zjcfg.zip"
}
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_copy -a 'src=/app/svn/127_Client/118919/ dest=D:\'
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "dest": "D:\\", 
    "operation": "folder_copy", 
    "src": "/app/svn/127_Client/118919/"
}
[root@Super ~]#

目标路径不能含关键词ansible,否则提示无效路径,源使用反斜杠结果将递归传输目录下所有文件,源不一反斜杠结尾将整个目录传输到目标目录下。

  • 创建用户
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_user -a "name=justin passwd=51cto groups=Administrators"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS => {
    "account_disabled": false, 
    "account_locked": false, 
    "changed": true, 
    "description": "", 
    "fullname": "justin", 
    "groups": [
        {
            "name": "Administrators", 
            "path": "WinNT://WORKGROUP/WTHOST/Administrators"
        }
    ], 
    "name": "justin", 
    "password_expired": true, 
    "password_never_expires": false, 
    "path": "WinNT://WORKGROUP/WTHOST/justin", 
    "sid": "S-1-5-21-4260034264-4268704002-684640490-1001", 
    "state": "present", 
    "user_cannot_change_password": false
}
[root@Super ~]#
  • 执行windows下的bat
[root@Super ~]# ansible windows -m win_command -a "chdir=D:\ .\xcopy.bat"
10.15.97.100 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>

D:\>md d:\justin 

[root@Super ~]#

先切换到bat所在目录,再执行bat

更多官方windows模块见:官网

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