oop – 如何使用带继承的组合?

我将尝试在一个简单的例子中提出我的问题……

假设我有一个抽象的基类Car. Car有一个基本的Engine对象.我在抽象Car类中有一个方法StartEngine(),它将引擎的启动委托给Engine对象.

如何允许Car的子类(如法拉利)将Engine对象声明为特定类型的引擎(例如,TurboEngine)?我需要另一个Car class(TurboCar)吗?

我正在继承一个普通的旧Engine对象,我不能在我的Car子类中重新声明(或覆盖)它作为TurboEngine.

编辑:我知道我可以在我的法拉利课程中将任何Engine的子类插入myEngine参考中…但是如何调用只有TurboEngine公开的方法呢?因为myEngine是作为基础引擎继承的,所以不包括任何turbo内容.

谢谢!

抽象工厂模式正是针对这个问题. Google GoF抽象工厂{您的首选语言}

在下文中,请注意如何使用具体工厂生成“完整”对象(enzo,civic),或者您可以使用它们来生成相关对象的“族”(CarbonFrame TurboEngine,WeakFrame WeakEngine).最终,您总是会得到一个Car对象,它响应使用类型特定行为的accele().

using System;


    abstract class CarFactory
    {
        public static CarFactory FactoryFor(string manufacturer){
            switch(manufacturer){
                case "Ferrari" : return new FerrariFactory();
                case "Honda" : return new HondaFactory();
                default:
                    throw new ArgumentException("Unknown car manufacturer. Please bailout industry.");
            }
        }

        public abstract Car createCar();
        public abstract Engine createEngine();
        public abstract Frame createFrame();

    }

    class FerrariFactory : CarFactory
    {
        public override Car createCar()
        {
            return new Ferrari(createEngine(), createFrame());
        }

        public override Engine createEngine()
        {
            return new TurboEngine();
        }

        public override Frame createFrame()
        {
            return new CarbonFrame();
        }
    }

    class HondaFactory : CarFactory
    {
        public override Car createCar()
        {
            return new Honda(createEngine(), createFrame());
        }

        public override Engine createEngine()
        {
            return new WeakEngine();
        }

        public override Frame createFrame()
        {
            return new WeakFrame();
        }
    }

    abstract class Car
    {
        private Engine engine;
        private Frame frame;

        public Car(Engine engine, Frame frame)
        {
            this.engine = engine;
            this.frame = frame;
        }

        public void accelerate()
        {
            engine.setThrottle(1.0f);
            frame.respondToSpeed();
        }

    }

    class Ferrari : Car
    {
        public Ferrari(Engine engine, Frame frame) : base(engine, frame)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Setting sticker price to $250K");
        }
    }

    class Honda : Car
    {
        public Honda(Engine engine, Frame frame) : base(engine, frame)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Setting sticker price to $25K");
        }
    }

    class KitCar : Car
    {
        public KitCar(String name, Engine engine, Frame frame)
            : base(engine, frame)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Going out in the garage and building myself a " + name);
        }
    }

    abstract class Engine
    {
        public void setThrottle(float percent)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Stomping on accelerator!");
            typeSpecificAcceleration();
        }

        protected abstract void typeSpecificAcceleration();
    }

    class TurboEngine : Engine
    {
        protected override void typeSpecificAcceleration()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Activating turbo");
            Console.WriteLine("Making noise like Barry White gargling wasps");
        }
    }

    class WeakEngine : Engine
    {
        protected override void typeSpecificAcceleration()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Provoking hamster to run faster");
            Console.WriteLine("Whining like a dentist's drill");
        }
    }

    abstract class Frame
    {
        public abstract void respondToSpeed();
    }

    class CarbonFrame : Frame
    {
        public override void respondToSpeed()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Activating active suspension and extending spoilers");
        }
    }

    class WeakFrame : Frame
    {
        public override void respondToSpeed()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Loosening bolts and vibrating");
        }
    }

    class TestClass
    {
        public static void Main()
        {
            CarFactory ferrariFactory = CarFactory.FactoryFor("Ferrari");
            Car enzo = ferrariFactory.createCar();
            enzo.accelerate();

            Console.WriteLine("---");
            CarFactory hondaFactory = CarFactory.FactoryFor("Honda");
            Car civic = hondaFactory.createCar();
            civic.accelerate();

            Console.WriteLine("---");
            Frame frame = hondaFactory.createFrame();
            Engine engine = ferrariFactory.createEngine();
            Car kitCar = new KitCar("Shaker", engine, frame);
            kitCar.accelerate();

            Console.WriteLine("---");
            Car kitCar2 = new KitCar("LooksGreatGoesSlow", hondaFactory.createEngine(), ferrariFactory.createFrame());
            kitCar2.accelerate();
        }
    }
相关文章
相关标签/搜索